CP Names
Database Notes

Carnivorous Plant Names Database

I.   The typical infraspecific taxa (autonyms) are not listed.
II.  The synonymical references apply to the autonymous form of
     the cited taxon unless indicated otherwise.
III. The infraspecific taxa belong to the typical (autonymous)
     superordinate infraspecific taxon unless indicated
     otherwise.
IV.  "/" means pro parte (partly).
V.   "?" stands for any kind of incertainty.
VI.  Plant names appear in []. Author names appear in {}.
VII. Accepted names are marked by a preceding "+". Illegitimate names
     (violating rules of nomenclature, not to be used) are marked "~".
     Cultivar names are marked "$".
VIII.In some hybrids of horticultural origin the originator's name (B)
     is cited; for natural hybrids the distribution (L, LFR) is given.
     Formulae of artificial hybrids of known origin have the female
     (seed) parent before the hybrid sign (*), followed by the male
     (pollen) parent.
IX.  Names of families (F) are arranged in systematical order, names of
     genera (G), of species and of taxa of lower rank, incl. hybrids (N)
     are arranged in alphabetical order.
X.   This list is permanently updated. If you have additions,
     comments or questions, please contact Jan Schlauer
     (jan@carnivorousplants.org)
XI.  No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form
     or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including
     photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and
     retrieval system, without permission in writing from the author.
XII. This file is free for distribution as long as:
     1. It is GIVEN away rather than sold (unless expressly permitted
        by the author)
     2. These statements and the above copyright notice are left intact

GEOGRAPHIC ABBREVIATIONS

Countries by ISO two-letter codes:
http://www.iso.org/iso/home/standards/country_codes/iso-3166-1_decoding_table.htm

Ala.                  Alabama
Az.                   Arizona
C                     central
Ca.                   California
E                     east(-ern)
Fla.                  Florida
Ga.                   Georgia
Is.                   Island(s)
La.                   Louisiana
Mass.                 Massachusetts
Mich.                 Michigan
Miss.                 Mississippi
Mo.                   Missouri
N                     north(-ern)
NC.                   North Carolina
Nev.                  Nevada
NJ.                   New Jersey
NY.                   New York
Ore.                  Oregon
Penna.                Pennsylvania
S                     south(-ern)
SC.                   South Carolina
Tex.                  Texas
Va.                   Virginia
W                     west(-ern)
Wash.                 Washington
Wyo.                  Wyoming

Floristic Regions and Provinces

General outline following A. Takhtajan (1986)
Floristic Regions of the World, University of California Press, Berkeley.

TDWG region (political unit) codes according to:
http://www.bgbm.fu-berlin.de/TDWG/geo/geotdwg1.dtx

I. Circumboreal Region
    1 Arctic (CA,GL,IS,SJ,RU,US;10,30,31,70,72)
    2 Atlantic Europe (AD,BE,DE,DK,ES,FO,FR,IE,NL,NO,UK;10,11,12)
    3 Central Europe  (AT,BE,BY,CH,CZ,DE,DK,FI,FR,HR,HU,IT,LT,LU,NL,NO,PL,RO,RU,SE,SI,SK,UA;10,11,12,13,14)
    4 Illyria or Balkan (AL,BA,BG,GR,HR,ME,MK,RS,SI,TR;13)
    5 Pontus Euxinus (TR,GE,AM,AZ;13,14,33)
    6 Caucasus (RU,GE,AM,AZ;14,33)
    7 Eastern Europe (BY,EE,LV,LT,RO,RU,UA;13,14)
    8 Northern Europe (FI,NO,SE,RU;10,14)
    9 Western Siberia (RU,KZ;30)
   10 Altai-Sayan (MN,RU;30,37)
   11 Central Siberia (RU;30)
   12 Transbaikalia (MN,RU;30,31)
   13 Northeastern Siberia (RU;31)
   14 Okhotsk-Kamchatka (RU;31)
   15 Canada incl. Great Lakes (CA,PM,US;70,71,72,73,74,75)
II. Eastern Asiatic Region
   16 Manchuria (CN,KP,MN,RU;31,36,37,38)
   17 Sakhalin-Hokkaido (JP,RU;31,38)
   18 Japan-Korea (CN,JP,KP,KR;36,38)
   19 Volcano-Bonin (JP;62)
   20 Ryukyu or Tokara-Okinawa (JP;38)
   21 Taiwan (TW;38)
   22 Northern China (CN;36)
   23 Central China (CN;36)
   24 Southeastern China (CN,HK,MO,TW;36)
   25 Sikang-Yunnan (CN;36)
   26 Northern Burma (MM;41)
   27 Eastern Himalaya (BT,CN,IN;36,40)
   28 Khasi-Manipur (IN,MM;40,41)
III. North American Atlantic Region
   29 Appalachians (US;75,78)
   30 Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain (US;75,77,78)
   31 North American Prairies (US;73,74,75,77,78)
IV. Rocky Mountain Region
   32 Vancouver (CA,US;70,71,73,76)
   33 Rocky Mountains (CA,US;70,71,73,76)
V. Macaronesian Region
   34 Azores (PT;21)
   35 Madeira (PT;21)
   36 Canaries (ES;21)
   37 Cape Verde (CV;21)
VI. Mediterranean Region
   38 Southern Morocco (MA;20)
   39 Southwestern Mediterranean (ES,GI,MA,PT;12,20)
   40 South Mediterranean (DL,DZ,TN;20)
   41 Iberia (ES,PT;12)
   42 Baleares (ES;12)
   43 Liguria-Tyrrhenia (FR,IT,MC,MT,VA;12,13)
   44 Adriatic (AL,HR,IT,ME;13)
   45 East Mediterranean (CY,GR,IL,LB,SY,TR;13,34)
   46 Crimea-Novorossijsk (UA;14)
VII. Saharo-Arabian Region
   47 Sahara (DL,DZ,EG,EH,ML,MR,NE,SD,TD;20,22,24)
   48 Egypt-Arabia (AE,BH,EG,IL,IQ,IR,JO,KW,OM,QA,SA,SD,YE;20,24,34,35)
VIII. Irano-Turanian Region
   49 Mesopotamia (IQ,IR,JO,SY,TR;34)
   50 Central Anatolia (TR;34)
   51 Armenia-Iran (GE,AM,AZ,TR,IR;33,34)
   52 Hyrcania (AZ,IR,TM;33,34)
   53 Turania or Aralo-Caspia (AZ,RU,KZ,UZ,TM;32,33)
   54 Turkestan (AF,IR,PK,TM,UZ,AF,TJ,KG,CN(Sinkiang),;32,34,40)
   55 Northern Baluchistan (AF,IR,PK;34,40)
   56 Western Himalaya (CN(Tibet),IN,PK;36,40)
   57 Central Tien Shan (CN(Sinkiang),KZ,UZ,KG,TJ;32,36)
   58 Dzungaria-Tien Shan (CN(Sinkiang);36)
   59 Mongolia (CN(Sinkiang),MN,RU,KZ;30,32,36,37)
   60 Tibet (CN(Tibet),IN,NP;36,40)
IX. Madrean Region
   61 Great Basin (US;73,76,77)
   62 California (MX,US;76,79)
   63 Sonora (MX,US;76,79)
   64 Mexican Highlands (MX,US;76,77,79)
X. Guineo-Congolian Region
   65 Upper Guinea (BF,CI,GH,GM,GN,GW,LR,ML,SL,SN,TG;22)
   66 Nigeria-Cameroon (CD,CF,CG,CM,GQ,NG,TD;22,23,24)
   67 Congo (AO,BI,CD,CG,CM,GA,GQ,KE,ST,RW,UG,TZ;23,25,26)
XI. Usambara-Zululand Region
   68 Zanzibar-Inhambane (MZ,TZ;25,26)
   69 Tongoland-Pondoland (MZ,SZ,ZA;26,27)
XII. Sudano-Zambezian Region
   70 Zambezi (AO,BW,CD,LS,MW,MZ,NA,TZ,ZA,ZM,ZW;23,25,26,27)
   71 Sahel (BF,BJ,CF,CI,CM,GH,GM,ML,MR,NE,NG,SN,TD,TG;22,23,24)
   72 Sudan (ER,ET,KE,SD,SO,TD;24,25)
   73 Somalia-Ethiopia (DJ,ET,SD,SO;24,25)
   74 South Arabia (SA,OM,YE;35)
   75 Socotra (YE;24)
   76 Oman (OM;35)
   77 South Iran (IR,PK;34,40)
   78 Sindia (IN,PK;40)
XIII. Karoo-Namib Region
   79 Namibia (AO,NA;26,27)
   80 Namaland (NA,ZA;27)
   81 Western Cape (ZA;27)
   82 Karoo (ZA;27)
XIV. St.Helena and Ascension Region
   83 St. Helena and Ascension (SH;28)
XV. Madagascan Region
   84 Eastern Madagascar (MG;29)
   85 Western Madagascar (MG;29)
   86 Southern and Southwestern Madagascar (MG;29)
   87 Comoro (KM,SC,YT;29)
   88 Mascarenes (MU,RE;29)
   89 Seychelles (SC;29)
XVI. Indian Region
   90 Ceylon/Sri Lanka (LK;40)
   91 Malabar (IN,IO,MV;40,43)
   92 Deccan (IN;40)
   93 Upper Gangetic Plain (IN;40)
   94 Bengal (BD,IN,MM;40,41)
XVII. Indochinese Region
   95 South Burma (BU,CC,MM,TH;41,43)
   96 Andamanes (IN,MM,TH;40,41)
   97 South China (CN,PI,VN;36,41)
   98 Thailand (KH,LA,MM,TH;41)
   99 North Indochina (LA,VN;41)
  100 Annam (KH,VN;41)
  101 South Indochina (KH,VN;41)
XVIII. Malesian Region
  102 Malaya (MY,SG;42)
  103 Borneo (BN,ID,MY;42)
  104 Philippines (PH,SI;41,42)
  105 Sumatra (CX,ID;42)
  106 South Malesia (ID,TP;42)
  107 Celebes (ID;42)
  108 Moluccas (ID;42)
  109 Papua (ID,PG;42)
  110 Bismarck Archipelago (PG,SB;42)
XIX. Fijian Region
  111 New Hebrides (VU;60)
  112 Fiji (AS,FJ,NU,TO,WF,WS;60)
XX. Polynesian Region
  113 Micronesia (FM,GU,KI,MH,MP,NR,PW,TV,UM;60,61,62)
  114 Polynesia (AS,CK,KI,PF,PN,TK,UM;60,61)
XXI. Hawaiian Region
  115 Hawaii (UM,US;63)
XXII. Neocaledonian Region
  116 New Caledonia (NC;60)
XXIII. Caribbean Region
  117 Central America (BZ,CO,CR,EC,GT,HN,MX,NI,PA,PF,SV;79,80,83)
  118 West Indies  (AG,AI,AN,AW,BB,BM,BS,CO,CU,DM,DO,GD,GP,HT,JM,KN,KY,LC,MQ,MS,PR,TC,US,VC,VE,VG,VI;78,81)
  119 Galapagos (EC;83)
XXIV. Region of the Guayana Highlands
  120 Guayana (BR,CO,GY,SR,VE;82,83,84)
XXV. Amazonian Region
  121 Amazonia (BO,BR,CO,GF,GY,PE,SR,TT,VE;81,82,83,84)
  122 Llanos (BO,BR,CO,PE;83,84)
XXVI. Brazilian Region
  123 Caatingas (BR;84)
  124 Central Brazilian Uplands (BR;84)
  125 Chaco (AR,BO,BR,PY;83,84,85)
  126 Atlantic Brazil (BR;84)
  127 Parana (AR,BR,PY;84,85)
XXVII. Andean Region
  128 Northern Andes (CO,EC,PE,VE;82,83)
  129 Central Andes (AR,BO,CL,PE;83,85)
XXVIII. Cape Region
  130 Cape (ZA;27)
XXIX. Northeast Australian Region
  131 North Australia (AU;50)
  132 Queensland (AU;50)
  133 Southeast Australia (AU;50)
  134 Tasmania (AU;50)
XXX. Southwest Australian Region
  135 Southwest Australia (AU;50)
XXXI. Central Australian or Eremaean Region
  136 Eremaea (AU;50)
XXXII. Fernandezian Region
  137 Juan Fernandez (CL;85)
XXXIII. Chile-Patagonian Region
  138 Northern Chile (AR,CL;85)
  139 Central Chile (AR,CL;85)
  140 Pampas (AR,UY;85)
  141 Patagonia (AR,CL,FK;85,90)
  142 Tierra del Fuego (AQ,AR,CL,GS;85,90,91)
XXXIV. Region of the South Subantarctic Islands
  143 Tristan-Gough (BV,SH;90)
  144 Kerguelen (HM,TF,ZA;90)
XXXV. Neozeylandic Region
  145 Lord Howe (AU;50)
  146 Norfolk (NF;50)
  147 Kermadec (NZ;51)
  148 New Zealand North Is. (NZ;51)
  149 New Zealand N South Is. (NZ;51)
  150 New Zealand S South Is. (NZ;51)
  151 Chatham (NZ;51)
  152 New Zealand Subantarctic Islands (AU,NZ;51,90)

OTHER ABBREVIATIONS

B                     Originator of a cultivated plant
BN                    Basionym (the name on which an altered
                      combination is based)
C                     Taxonomic/botanical comment
CLA                   Classification
CN                    Correct name (the orthographically correct
                      spelling from which misprints were "derived")
FT                    Phototype (if holotype is lost, only)
GR                    Cultivar-group
GRP                   Cultivar-group publication
HC                    Horticultural comment
in sched.             In schedis (on labels) in Herbaria or on plants
                      cultivated and displayed at Botanic gardens
IT                    Isotype (if holotype is lost, only)
L                     Distribution (countries)
LFR                   Distribution (floristic provinces)
LT                    Lectotype (if holotype does not exist)
LTG                   Lectotypus generis (if no generitype was
                      designated when the genus was first described)
LTP                   Lectotype publication
nom.cons.             Nomen conservandum (conserved name)
nom.dub.              Nomen dubium (the status of which is obscure)
nom.illeg.            Nomen illegitimum (earlier valid synonym cited
                      in protologue or type typifies an earlier
                      valid synonym or earlier homonym is based on
                      another type)
nom.nov.              Nomen novum (new name if original name was not
                      available, e.g. as a later homonym, at time of
                      first publication)
nom.nud.              Nomen nudum (no valid description and/or no type)
NT                    Neotype (if holotype is lost, only)
NTP                   Neotype publication
P                     First publication of a name
p.p.                  Pro parte (only parts of the specimen are type
                      material)
PT                    Paratype (if holotype is lost, only)
PW                    Publication on the Web
RLC                   IUCN Red List Category
S                     Status (accepted synonym or hybrid formula)
spec.excl.            Species exclusa (excluded species, belonging to
                      another family or genus)
sphalm.typogr.        Sphalma typographicum (misprint)
SYN                   Synonym (an earlier valid one, cited in
                      protologue of illegitimate name)
T                     (Holo-) type
TF                    Typus familiae (type of family, a generic name)
TG                    Typus generis (type of genus, a species name)
TGP                   Publication of lectotypus generis (q.v.)
VN                    Vernacular (popular) name
XN                    Somatic chromosome number
XNP                   Chromosome number publication
|                     Specimen deletum (specimen destroyed)
*                     Hybrid sign (multiplication symbol)

CLASSIFICATION

Note: The previous (pre-2001) setup of entries in this database (lacking
systematic information above the rank of family and between the ranks of genus
and species) turned out to be insufficient for considerations of biodiversity.
The records for accepted names have therefore been augmented by classification
data (in CLA-entries).

The taxonomic basis for the subgeneric and sectional classification used in
this database follows Schlauer (Carniv.Pl.Newslett.25:67-88, 1996) for
Drosera, Fromm-Trinta (Bol.Mus.Nac.Rio de Janeiro, n.s. Bot.44:1-4, 1977) for
Genlisea, Casper (Biblioth.Bot.127/128:1-209, 1966) for Pinguicula, and
Taylor (Kew Bull. Add. Ser.14:1-724, 1989) for Utricularia, with some
adjustments. No attempt has been made to subdivide the complex genus
Nepenthes.

The entries in the CLA field are nested ranks of classification roughly
corresponding to nodes on a phylogenetic tree, so it should be trivial for
taxonomists of any flavour to map the classification used here to a system or
theory of their choice.

The formal ranks used are:
Subclass-Order-Family-Genus-Subgenus-Section

The codes used are, for subclasses-orders:
AST-SCR               Asteridae, Scrophulariales
CAR-NEP               Caryophyllidae, Nepenthales
COM-BRO               Commelinidae, Bromeliales
ERI-ERI               Ericidae, Ericales (incl. Sarraceniales)
ROS-OXA               Rosidae, Oxalidales
for families:
BRO                   Bromeliaceae
BYB                   Byblidaceae
CEP                   Cephalotaceae
DIP                   Dioncophyllaceae
DRO                   Droseraceae
DRP                   Drosophyllaceae
LEN                   Lentibulariaceae
MAR                   Martyniaceae
NEP                   Nepenthaceae
ROR                   Roridulaceae
SAR                   Sarraceniaceae
for genera:
ALD                   Aldrovanda
BRC                   Brocchinia
BYB                   Byblis
CAT                   Catopsis
CEP                   Cephalotus
CRA                   Craniolaria
DAR                   Darlingtonia
DIO                   Dionaea
DIP                   Dioncophyllum
DRO                   Drosera
DRP                   Drosophyllum
GEN                   Genlisea
HAB                   Habropetalum
HEL                   Heliamphora
IBI                   Ibicella
MAR                   Martynia
NEP                   Nepenthes
PIN                   Pinguicula
PRO                   Proboscidea
ROR                   Roridula
SAR                   Sarracenia
TRI                   Triphyophyllum
UTR                   Utricularia
for subgenera:
ALD                   Aldrovanda
ARC                   Arcturia
BRC                   Brocchinia
BRY                   Bryastrum
BYB                   Byblis
CAT                   Catopsis
CEP                   Cephalotus
COE                   Coelophylla
CRA                   Craniolaria
DAR                   Darlingtonia
DIO                   Dionaea
DIP                   Dioncophyllum
DRO                   Drosera
DRP                   Drosophyllum
ERG                   Ergaleium
GEN                   Genlisea
HAB                   Habropetalum
HEL                   Heliamphora
IBI                   Ibicella
ISO                   Isoloba
LAS                   Lasiocephala
MAR                   Martynia
MER                   Meristocaulis
NEP                   Nepenthes
ORC                   Orcheosanthus
PHY                   Phycopsis
PIN                   Pinguicula
POL                   Polypompholyx (incl. subgen. Utricularia auct. p.p.)
PRO                   Proboscidea
REG                   Regiae
ROR                   Roridula
SAR                   Sarracenia
STE                   Stelogyne
TEM                   Temnoceras
THE                   Thelocalyx
TRI                   Triphyophyllum
UTR                   Utricularia
for sections:
AGN                   Agnata
ALD                   Aldrovanda
AMP                   Ampullipalatum
AMP                   Anisandra
ARA                   Arachnopus
ARC                   Arcturia
ARN                   Aranella
AUS                   Australes
AVE                   Avesicaria
AVO                   Avesicarioides
BEN                   Benjaminia
BIO                   Biovularia
BRC                   Brocchinia
BRY                   Bryastrum
BYB                   Byblis
CAL                   Calpidisca
CAN                   Candollea
CAP                   Cardiophyllum
CAT                   Catopsis
CEP                   Cephalotus
CHE                   Chelidon
CHO                   Choristothecae
COE                   Coelophylla
CRA                   Craniolaria
CRF                   Crassifolia
DAR                   Darlingtonia
DIO                   Dionaea
DIP                   Dioncophyllum
DRO                   Drosera
DRP                   Drosophyllum
ENS                   Enskide
ERG                   Ergaleium
ERY                   Erythrorhiza
FOL                   Foliosa
GEN                   Genlisea
HAB                   Habropetalum
HEF                   Heterophylliformis
HEL                   Heliamphora
HET                   Heterophyllum
HOM                   Homophyllum (incl. Discoradix)
IBI                   Ibicella
IPE                   Iperua
ISO                   Isoloba
KAM                   Kamienskia
LAM                   Lamprolepis
LAS                   Lasiocephala
LEC                   Lecticula
LLO                   Lloydia
LON                   Longitubus
MAR                   Martynia
MAT                   Martinia
MEI                   Meionula
MER                   Meristocaulis
MIC                   Micranthes
MIP                   Microphyllum
MIR                   Mirabiles
MTN                   Montanae
NAN                   Nana
NEL                   Nelipus
NEP                   Nepenthes
NIG                   Nigrescentes
OLI                   Oligocista
OLV                   Oliveria
ORC                   Orcheosanthus
ORH                   Orchidioides
PHY                   Phycopsis
PHL                   Phyllaria
PIN                   Pinguicula
PLE                   Pleiochasia
POL                   Polypompholyx
PPH                   Psychophila
PRL                   Prolifera
PRO                   Proboscidea
PSY                   Psyllosperma
PYP                   Pyrophytae
REG                   Regiae (in Drosera and Nepenthes)
ROR                   Roridula
SAR                   Sarracenia
SET                   Setiscapella
SPR                   Sprucea
STE                   Stelogyne
STM                   Stomoisia
STO                   Stolonifera
STR                   Steyermarkia
STY                   Stylotheca
TAY                   Tayloria
TEM                   Temnoceras
TEN                   Tentaculatae
THE                   Thelocalyx
TRD                   Tridentaria
TRI                   Triphyophyllum
UTR                   Utricularia
URC                   Urceolatae
VES                   Vesiculina

DATA GIVEN FOR CULTIVAR NAMES

ICNCP                 International Code for the Nomenclature of Cultivated
                      Plants, 7.ed, Acta Horticult.647:i-xxi,1-123 (2004),
                      ISBN 90 6605 527 8 http://www.actahort.org
Introducer            Person who introduced a formerly wild-growing plant
                      into cultivation, by which it became a cultivar
Nominant              Person who coined the name of a cultivar
Registrant            Person who submitted a cultivar name for
                      registration; in names published before 1998
                      this is the describing author
Translit.             Transliteration (given if the epithet was
                      originally written in a language not using Latin
                      characters)
Translation           Given if translations of the original epithet are
                      in use
Awards                Awards received by a cultivar
Patents               Patents registered for a cultivar
Description           Publication reference to a cultivar description and
                      (if available) text of description
Standard              Reference to a published standard photograph and
                      (if available) link to a corresponding image
Propagation           Preferred method of propagation
Etymology             Meaning or derivation of a cultivar epithet

Notes:
Syntypes are not tolerated, only one representative
specimen is cited. This does not mean a lectotype is selected here.
For some names the types could not yet be traced.
Herbaria are abbreviated according to the Index Herbariorum:
http://www.nybg.org/bsci/ih/ih.html


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